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1.     fragrant (adj): having a pleasant or sweet smellCinnamon is a sweet, fragrant spice.
2.     biblical (adj): relating to or based on the BibleCinnamon was known in biblical times, and is mentioned in several books of the Bible.
3.     condiment (n): a substance, such as salt, that you add to food to improve its tasteThe ability to purchase an expensive condiment.
4.     exotic (adj): unusual and exciting because of coming a distant foreign countryan expensive condiment from the exotic’ East.
5.     at someone’s disposal (phr): available to be used by someoneAt a banquet, a host would offer guests a plate with various spices piled upon it as a sign of the wealth at his or her disposal.
6.     the elite (n): the richest, most powerful, best-educated, or best-trained group in a societyThe European middle classes began to desire the lifestyle of the elite, including their consumption of spices.
7.     merchant (n): a person or business that buys and sells goodsAt that time, cinnamon was transported by Arab merchants.
8.     monopoly (n): complete control of an area of businessThe English arrived on Ceylon, thereby displacing the Dutch from their control of the cinnamon monopoly.
9.     exorbitant (adj): unreasonably highBecause Venice had a virtual monopoly of the trade, the Venetians could set the price of cinnamon exorbitantly high.
10.  cultivation (n): the process of growing crops or plantsBefore Europeans arrived on the island, the state had organized the cultivation of cinnamon.
11.  ethnic (adj): relating to a particular race of peoplePeople belonging to the ethnic group called the Salagama would peel the bark off young shoots of the cinnamon plant in the rainy season.
12.  enslave (v): to make someone a slaveWhen the Portuguese arrived, they enslaved many other members of the Ceylonese native population.
13.  ally yourself to/with sb (phr): to start to support someoneThe Dutch allied themselves with Kandy, an inland kingdom on Ceylon.
14.  expel (v): to force someone to leave a school, organization, or countryBy 1658, the Dutch had permanently expelled the Portuguese from the island.
15.  lucrative (adj): producing a lot of moneygaining control of the lucrative cinnamon trade
16.  appetite (n): the feeling that you want to eat foodEurope’s ever-increasing appetite for cinnamon
17.  supersede (v): to replace something, especially something older or more old-fashionedThe spice trade overall was superseded by the rise of trade in coffee, tea.
18.     reinforce (v): to make strongerreinforce the bonds between prairie voles
19.     trigger (v): to cause something to starttriggers the motherly behaviour
20.     empathetic (adj): showing an ability to understand and share the feelings of anotherOne sniff of oxytocin can make a person more trusting, empathetic, generous and cooperative.
21.     emerge (v): to appear, to come out of somethingOxytocin’s role in human behaviour first emerged in 2005.
22.     groundbreaking (adj): using new methods, innovativein a groundbreaking experiment.
23.     placebo (n): a substance that is not medicine but that a patient who is taking it believes is medicine, and so they get betterThe team found that participants who had sniffed oxytocin via a nasal spray beforehand invested more money than those who received a placebo instead.
24.     charitable (adj): kind, and not judging other people in a severe wayPeople become more charitable, better at reading emotions on others’ faces.
25.     fuel (v): to make something increase or become strongerThe results fuelled the view that oxytocin universally enhanced the positive aspects of our social nature.
26.     disposition (n): the particular type of character that a person naturally hasa person’s disposition
27. conduct (v): to organize and perform a particular activitystudies conducted by Carolyn DeClerck of the University of Antwerp, Belgium
28. favouritism (n): the practice of giving unfair preferential treatment to one person or groupVolunteers given oxytocin showed favouritism.
29. bias (n): inclination or prejudice for or against one person or groupIt appears that oxytocin strengthens biases.
30. goodwill (n): helpful, or cooperative feelings or attitudepromoting general goodwill
31. subtlety (n): a small but important detailThere were signs of these subtleties from the start.
32. take (no) notice of (phr): (not) pay attention; (not) show signs of interestResearchers took no notice of such findings.
33. attuned (to) (adj): receptive or awaremaking people more attuned to their social environment.
34. perplexing (adj): confusing, baffling, very puzzlingPerhaps we should not be surprised that the oxytocin story has become more perplexing.
35. manifest (v): show, demonstrateThese basic processes could manifest in different ways.
36.     identify (v): to recognizeMost managers can identify the major trends of the day.
37.     profound (adj): serious, showing serious thought and wise ideasrecognize the less obvious but profound ways these trends are influencing consumers
38.     aspiration (n): something that you hope to achieveconsumers’ aspirations, attitudes, and behaviors
39.     jeopardize (v): to put something in danger of being harmed or damagedThey can jeopardize a company by ceding to rivals the opportunity to transform the industry.
40.     engender (v): to cause a feeling or attitude to existengender new value propositions in their core markets
41.     adept (at) (adj): skillfuladept at analyzing and exploiting trends
42.     opulence (n): great wealth or luxuriousnessThe Coach brand had been a symbol of opulence and luxury for nearly 70 years.
43.     downturn (n): a reduction in economic or business activitythe economic downturn of 2008
44.     mindset (n): a way of thinking about thingsCoach saw the new consumer mindset as an opportunity for innovation and renewal.
45.  commitment (n): a promise to do something, enthusiasm for somethingthe company’s commitment to protecting the environment
46.  augment (v): to increase the size or value of somethingTesco has augmented its business with these innovations.
47.  infuse (v): to fill someone or something with an emotion or qualityinfusing its value proposition with a green streak
48.  incorporate (v): to include something as part of something largerto incorporate elements of a seemingly irrelevant trend into one’s core offerings
49.  apparel (n): clothes of a special typea focus on athletic apparel
50.  reinvigorate (v): to strengthen something or someoneThe infuse-and-augment strategy will allow you to reinvigorate the category.